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@article{, license={Creative Commons 3.0: Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs}, title= {Nuclear Engineering 101, 001 - Fall 2014 - UC Berkeley}, keywords= {}, author= {}, abstract= {### Course Title: Nuclear Reactions and Radiation ### Catalog Description: Energetics and kinetics of nuclear reactions and radioactive decay, fission, fusion, and reactions of energetic neutrons, properties of the fission products and the actinides; nuclear models and transition probabilities; interaction of radiation with matter. ### Course Prerequisite: Physics 7ABC Physics for scientists and engineers Prerequisite Knowledge and/or Skills: The course uses the following knowledge and skills from prerequisite and lower-division courses: - solve linear, first and second order differential equations. - understand and apply the fundamental laws of physical chemistry such as the Boltzmann distribution for particles in an ideal gas. - understand and apply the fundamentals of classical mechanics, electricity and magnetism and the elements of quantum mechanics to idealized representations of the structure of nuclei and nuclear reactions. - understand and apply the fundamental notions of probability and probability distributions. ### Course Objectives: - Provide the students with a solid understanding of the fundamentals of those aspect of low-energy nuclear physics that are most important to applications in such areas as nuclear engineering, nuclear and radiochemistry, geosciences, biotechnology, etc. ### Course Outcomes: - calculate the consequences of radioactive growth and decay and nuclear reactions. - calculate estimates of nuclear masses and energetics based on empirical data and nuclear models. - calculate estimates of the lifetimes of nuclear states that are unstable to alpha-,beta- and gamma decay and internal conversion based on the theory of simple nuclear models. - use nuclear models to predict low-energy level structure and level energies. - use nuclear models to predict the spins and parities of low-lying levels and estimate their consequences with respect to radioactive decay. - use nuclear models to understand the properties of neutron capture and the Breit-Wigner single level formula to calculate cross sections at resonance and thermal energies. - calculate the kinematics of the interaction of photons with matter and apply stopping power to determine the energy loss rate and ranges of charged particles in matter - calculate the energies of fission fragments and understand the charge and mass distributions of the fission products, and prompt neutron and gamma rays from fission ### Topics Covered: - Introduction to nuclear reactions and radioactive decay - mass and energy balances and decay modes - Nuclear and Atomic masses - empirical data and the semiempirpical mass formula - Application of the Semiempirical mass formula to determine the nuclear mass surface and the general characteristics of the energetics of alpha- and beta-decay and nuclear fission - Application of the Semiempirical mass formula to uncover empirical evidence for nuclear shell structure; the magic numbers Introduction to the facts of quantum mechanics and conserved quantities – angular momentum and parity, the Schroedinger equation and the particle in the box model - The Spherical Shell Model - particle motion , angular momentum and parity in the spherical potential well and the isotropic harmonic oscillator potentials - The Empirical Shell Model and low-lying levels of spherical and near spherical nuclei - The Electric Potential of Nuclei and Evidence for Deformed Nuclei – multipole expansion of the electric potential and empirical data on quadrupole moments - Predictions of the Quantized Rigid Rotor and Harmonic Vibrator - comparisons of the idealized models with empirical data on rotational and vibrational spectra of deformed nuclei - Alpha Decay - energetics and the decay probability in the limit of the Gamow model. Comparison of model predictions with empirical data. Alpha decay schemes - Beta Decay - beta decay, positron emission and electron capture; the Fermi theory of allowed beta decay; forbidden transitions; Fermi and Gamow-Teller decay; empirical beta decay schemes and correlations with elementary beta decay theory and spherical shell structure - Gamma Decay and Internal Conversion- multipole expansion of the radiation field and qualitative consideration of decay probabilities in the limit of the Moskowski and Weisskopf models; nuclear isomerism; internal conversion; nuclear structure and empirical data on gamma decay - Nuclear Fission - energetics and empirical data on mass distributions and shell structure, charge distribution of the fission fragments, prompt neutrons and gamma rays - Nuclear Reactions - reaction types and energetics; kinematics of two-body elastic scattering and nuclear reactions; applications to moderation of neutrons and the interaction of charged particles with matter; direct and compound nuclear reactions; resonances and physical plausibility of the form of the Breit-Wigner single level formula; the Breit-Wigner single level formula and resonances properties of neutron reactions - Introduction to the Interaction of Charged Particles with Matter; ranges of leptons and heavy charged particles in matter - Introduction to the Interaction of Photons with Matter - the Compton Effect; qualitative discussion of the effect of electron binding; pair production; macroscopic cross sections and attenuation coefficients }, terms= {}, url= {https://www.nuc.berkeley.edu/courses/ne-101} }